Cheeneh Niavaran 2
This building, located on Niavaran Square, Bahonar Street, adjacent to the alley Mina which is located north to the main street, from the south to the residential plain, to the west to the subway and From the East to the dead-end Kia.
The concept and ideas presented in the design of the above-mentioned building are based on the architecture of the building. Using kinetic or dynamical architecture has some advantages such as beauty, spatial diversity, integration, dynamism, improving visual quality, efforts to reduce energy consumption and waste , and etc.
Variation in the appearance of the building can create a special attraction for the facade and the building itself. The windows and front of the building are the right tools for the visibility of the building. In most buildings with a moving view, the fences in front of the window are animated so that each time you can make a change in the view.
A kinetic façade is one that changes dynamically rather than being static or fixed, allowing movement to occur on a building’s surface. This helps to create what the architect Buckminster Fuller called a ‘skin-like articulation’ effect, and is an extension of the idea that a building’s envelope is an active system rather than just a container.
A kinetic façade can be used to manage light, air, energy, and even information. They can act to reduce solar gain as well as allowing the passage of fresh air into the building, helping to alter the interior environment. The moving elements of the façade can be programmed to respond to climatic or other environmental factors, time, levels and type of occupancy and so on to improve performance and efficiency.
With advances in sensors, materials and building management technology, designers are increasingly able to consider kinetic components as design solutions.
The Al Bahr Towers in Abu Dhabi has a computer-controlled facade made of umbrella-like panels. These panels open and close throughout the day in response to the sun’s movement, giving optimal shading and allowing light to enter the building as required.
The Berlin-based design studio WHITEvoid developed FLARE in 2008. This is a kinetic ambient reflection membrane, meaning that a building could have a ‘living skin’, enabling the façade to breathe in response to the environment. Stainless steel flakes tilted by pneumatic cylinders act to reflect natural light away from the building, maintaining a comfortable interior environment during hot weather.
Built for Expo 2012, the Theme Pavilion EXPO in South Korea, ‘breathes’ through the façade’s biomimicry. Synchronised actuators move 108 kinetic lamellas which are powered by solar panels.
Kinetic facades can also be used for aesthetic purposes, to make a strong impression, to generate interest, or as part of art exhibitions.
The 2014 refurbishment of the Oxford Street Debenhams store (see top image). Designed by Archial Architects, included a cladding screen made up of 185,000 aluminium shingles which can move independently with the flow of wind to create a fluid or ripple effect across the entire surface, as well as providing some protection against rain.
Double skin façade
Double-skin facades are assuming an ever-greater importance in modern building practice. There is an increasing demand for higher quality office buildings. Occupants and developers of office buildings ask for a healthy and stimulating working environment.
Double-skin facades are appropriate when buildings are subject to great external noise and wind loads. A further area of application is in rehabilitation work, when existing facades cannot be renewed, or where this is not desirable. Double-skin facades have a special aesthetic of their own, and this can be exploited architecturally to great advantage.
However, there are still relatively few buildings in which double-skin facades have actually been realized, and there is still too little experience of their behavior in operation.
The essential concept of the double-skin facade was first explored and tested by the Swiss-French architect Le Corbusier in the early 20th century. His idea, which he called mur neutralisant (neutralizing wall), involved the insertion of heating/cooling pipes between large layers of glass. Such a system was employed in his Villa Schwob (La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland, 1916), and proposed for several other projects, including the League of Nations competition (1927), Centrosoyuz building (Moscow, 1928–33), and Cité du Refuge (Paris, 1930). American engineers studying the system in 1930 informed Le Corbusier that it would use much more energy than a conventional air system, but Harvey Bryan later concluded Le Corbusier’s idea had merit if it included solar heating.
Another early experiment was the 1937 Alfred Loomis house by architect William Lescaze in Tuxedo Park, NY. This house included “an elaborate double envelope” with a 2-foot-deep air space conditioned by a separate system from the house itself. The object was to maintain high humidity levels inside.
One of the first modern examples to be constructed was the Occidental Chemical Building (Niagara Falls, New York, 1980) by Cannon Design. This building, essentially a glass cube, included a 4-feet-deep cavity between glass layers to pre-heat air in winter.
The recent resurgence of efficient building design has renewed interest in this concept. Since the USGBC rewards points for reduction in energy consumption vs. a base case, this strategy has been used to optimize energy performance of buildings.
The cavity between the two skins may be either naturally or mechanically ventilated. In cool climates the solar gain within the cavity may be circulated to the occupied space to offset heating requirements, while in hot climates the cavity may be vented out of the building to mitigate solar gain and decrease the cooling load. In each case the assumption is that a higher insulative value may be achieved by using this glazing configuration versus a conventional glazing configuration.
Recent studies showed that the energy performance of a building connected to a double-skin facade can be improved both in the cold and the warm season or in cold and warm climates by optimizing the ventilation strategy of the façade
The advantages of double-skin facades over conventional single skin facades are not clear-cut; similar insulative values may be obtained using conventional high performance, low-e windows. The cavity results in a decrease in usable floor space, and depending on the strategy for ventilating the cavity, it may have problems with condensation, becoming soiled or introducing outside noise. The construction of a second skin may also present a significant increase in materials and design costs.
Building energy modelling of double-skin facades is inherently more difficult because of varying heat transfer properties within the cavity, making the modeling of energy performance and the prediction of savings debatable
The main reasons for using the double-faced view on the northern front
Usage of the two-sided view, also on the north face, should have compelling reasons, especially for the employer. Considering the costs that appear to be extraordinary at first glance, but with a reflection on the structure that suggests this, it can be seen that the duality of the image, along with the dynamic aspects and the mobility of the panels used in it, would be very helpful. .
As stated above, the two-faced view, in addition to the integrity of the building and the reliability of the visual aesthetics and its effective effects on urban design, also leads to issues such as energy sustainability. But typically, the use of a double-sided façade for the south side of the buildings is to control the passing of light, ventilation, and to reduce energy consumption. In this building, with a deconstruction in the basics, the north facing is designed in two directions. The main purpose of this practical move is to convey the light of the south to the north face, the light of the north, is not a good light for generating public light, given the fact that in the building, from the south, because of the adjoining light for general lighting in commercial office places or even in residential plaza, and only three other directions, both of which are unsuitable for the general lighting required for the building. It focuses on designing (supplying and transmitting light from the north to the south) using smart polished sheets that are mirror-like and moving vertically. Rotation along the horizontal(x) axis also improves the performance of the sheets by adapting to the angular variations in sunlight. This animation can be hand-held or smart, using sensors of light, wind, etc. Meanwhile, in order to provide part of the electricity used for moving the sheets, they can be considered with the use of solar panels.
The lighting of the facade is done both in a point and a linear way along the facade and on the sheets and columns.
The kinetic façade of the latest achievements in the design of the day is based on the knowledge and usage of the building.
The distance between the first and second shell is effective in size of the sheets and the width of the columns in facade.
The structure of the facade can be attached to the main structure or individually embedded and attached to the facade using the hinges across the floors and provide structural stability in the two-sided façade.